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Processus d’achat / Buying Process

Le processus d’achat.

Bien acheter : Passer par une agence spécialisée revêt plusieurs avantages. Tout d’abord, nous vous proposons un certain nombre de propriétés répondant à vos critères et qui peut s’étendre aux réseaux des confrères.

D’autre part, en tant que spécialiste des “demeures de campagne”, nous vous accompagnons de nos conseils avisés. Pour tous les biens sélectionnés, nous vérifions leur qualité, la conformité aux réglementations (certificats et diagnostics), la régularité des titres de propriété, les servitudes éventuelles. Nous pouvons aussi vous conseiller pour le montage financier du projet.

Calcul des frais : Avant de vous lancer, prenez le temps de calculer le budget global du projet, sans oublier les frais de notaire (7 % pour de l’ancien), de déménagement, de travaux éventuels… Mesurez également le montant total des remboursements (emprunts, crédits en cours, charges fixes) qui doit représenter au maximum 33 % des revenus nets du foyer.

Le processus d’acquisition d’un bien immobilier en France est structuré en plusieurs étapes

1- Négociation. Vous avez sélectionné un bien en adéquation avec vos critères, vous faites une offre écrite, une “promesse d’achat”. Nous nous engageons à la présenter aux propriétaires dans les meilleurs délais et si nécessaire, nous chargeons des négociations.  Après avoir conclu un accord sur les principaux paramètres de la vente, les parties signent un « compromis de vente ».

2- Le compromis de vente. Lorsqu’acheteurs et vendeurs se sont mis d’accord, nous réunissons les documents nécessaires à la rédaction du compromis de vente, qui sera directement signé devant notaire. Le «compromis» contient déjà les termes de la vente, et constitue, en général, déjà un contrat fixe et ferme pour les deux parties. Lors de la signature du compromis, où sont mentionnés les états civils, l’origine de propriété, le descriptif du bien vendu, les conditions générales de la vente et le rapport des diagnostics obligatoires (en règle générale DPE/GES, plomb, amiante, rapport électrique) l’acheteur verse un dépôt de garantie ou « l’indemnité d’immobilisation » (en général 10% du montant du bien immobilier). Ce dépôt est encaissé par le notaire. Suite à la signature du compromis, l’acheteur reçoit le compromis signé par recommandé. A sa réception, il dispose d’une « période de rétraction» de dix jours pendant laquelle il peut résilier le contrat (par courrier recommandé avec accusé de réception), sans encourir les inconvénients juridiques et sans en justifier la raison. Le vendeur, cependant, ne peut plus se retirer d’un “compromis” signé sans motif valable.
Après l’expiration de la période de rétraction, le contrat devient obligatoire pour les deux parties. A ce stade, l’acheteur ne peut plus résilier le contrat sans perdre son dépôt. Le dépôt est, bien entendu, entièrement pris en compte dans le prix d’achat lors de la réalisation de la vente. Toutefois, le compromis peut contenir un certain nombre de conditions suspensives (les «clauses suspensives») desquelles la validité du contrat dépend. Pour la plupart, ces conditions concernent la capacité de l’acheteur à obtenir un financement pour l’achat par un prêteur (c. – à. – d. un prêt immobilier d’une banque). Toutefois, d’autres conditions peuvent être la capacité de l’acheteur à obtenir un permis de construire. Dans le cas où une telle condition n’est pas remplie, l’acheteur a le droit de s’abstenir de l’acquisition sans pénalité contractuelle.

3- La signature de l’acte final ou “acte authentique” intervient dans un délai moyen de 2 mois  suite à la signature du compromis de vente. En sa qualité d’Officier Public, le Notaire* confère par sa signature l’authenticité à l’acte qu’il reçoit et s’engage sur son contenu et sa date. Il collecte au préalable tous les renseignements et les documents juridiques et  administratifs nécessaires. Il opère toutes les vérifications nécessaires notamment en matière juridique, fiscale, hypothécaire et d’urbanisme. Il effectue toutes les formalités préalables (ex : purge  d’un droit de préemption) et notifications diverses. Il s’assure du versement des sommes nécessaires à la réalisation de l’acte (prix, prêt,  frais et droits, honoraires).

* En France, un notaire n’est pas un simple « notaire public » (comme aux États-Unis), mais un avocat spécialisé qui agit en qualité de fonctionnaire du gouvernement. Il est tenu par la loi d’agir de façon impartiale, c’est à dire à la fois pour l’acheteur et le vendeur, et à veiller à ce que la vente soit conforme à toutes les exigences légales.

 

 

The French property-buying process is very straightforward, but it can still be nerve-wracking because of its unfamiliarity, especially if you don’t speak French.

Steps when purchasing a property

 

1.Negotiation

This is the crucial period of the process, when we will negotiate the deal on your behalf to include (where applicable) any items of furniture and equipment etc that it is to form part of the deal and any special clauses and conditions. During this period we will also arrange to the obligatory survey (the ‘Etude Diagnostique’) that is carried out at the vendor’s expense.

2.The Compromis de Vente

Once the deal has been confirmed, both parties are ready to sign the Compromis de Vente. Drafted by a Notaire, a compromis de vente is what may more commonly be understood as a sale and purchase agreement, as there is a clear bilateral obligation.Ideally the signing takes place here in France, but where buyers and / or vendors are remote, it is possible to do it by email and / or mail.

A deposit of up to 10% of the purchase price is made on signing of the agreement and the purchaser has 10 days during which time they can withdraw from the contract without penalty.

Under the contract the owner agrees to sell to the purchaser and the purchaser in turn agrees to buy from the owner, subject to any conditions that may be stipulated in the contract.

2.1 First Stage – Exchange

Once you have made an offer and a price has been agreed, the sales contract (“Compromis de Vente”) is drawn up by the Notaire. The Compromis is like the first draft of the final contract. It sets out the details of the purchase (what you are buying) and those involved in it (the seller and the buyer) as well as showing how much you are paying (including the fees). It has to be signed by both buyer and seller.

2.2 Paperwork Required

In order to have the Compromis drawn up, you will need to provide your passport and relevant marriage and divorce papers. If you’re borrowing money to purchase the property, you’ll need paperwork with details of the loan. Ideally, you should take this documentation with you on your search trip, as that will allow the process of drawing up the Compromis to begin immediately. You should expect the Compromis to take 2-3 weeks to prepare.

In summary, this contract will include the following;

1. The names, addresses, dates of birth and profession of all parties.

2. A brief description of the property including land and outbuildings. This will include all relevant land registry numbers.

3. The price

4. Any special conditions. These are called “Conditions Suspensive” and will include things such as a mortgage.

5. Further contract conditions. These are called “Conditions Particulières”. This is where a move in date will be included if this is different from the completion date.

6. The deposit. This is normally ten percent of the purchase price and is held by the Notaire until completion.

7. The completion date. This is normally two/three months after the signing of the Compromis de Vente.

8. The name and address of the Notaire. The buyer has the right to choose the Notaire but is normal to use a Notaire local to the property.

 

2.3 Fulfilling the terms of the Contract

The contract is now also conditional on reports being provided in most areas for asbestos and lead. The vendor must provide these before the Compromis is signed, and forms part of the contract documents. The first contract is always conditional on local searches, checking of ownership, etc which is completed by the Notaire.

3.The Cooling Off Period

Once both parties have signed the contract, the notaire sends Compromis de Vente by registered mail and upon reception of this the Ten Days Cooling Off Period starts.

If, for whatever reason, the buyer has second thoughts about the purchase during this time, he is able to withdraw without penalty and receives his deposit back in full.

The option to withdraw from the contract is only available to the buyer. Once the seller has signed they are legally bound by the contract.

The ‘cooling off’ period is also only available for the purchase of a house or flat and any other buildings or land which may be associated with the residence, at the time of the purchase. It is not available if you are buying through a Société Civile Immobilière (SCI), or if you are a registered property professional in France, engaged in the buying and selling or development of property.

If you sign in front of a notaire, then you will normally be given a copy of the contract, and the seven day ‘period of reflection’ commences the following day.

If you are not handed the contract by the notaire, then they are obliged by law to send you the contract by recorded delivery letter, and the start of the cooling off period begins the day following signed receipt of the contract.

At the end of the ten day cooling off period the contract becomes binding on both parties, subject to any conditions that may have been included in the contract.

If you wish to withdraw from the sale prior to the expiry of the seven-day period then, prior to the expiry of the seven day period, you need to send a recorded delivery letter to the estate agent or notaire giving notice of your withdrawal. You are not obliged to give reasons.

4. Local Searches

Once the Cooling Off Period has expired, the Notaire will undertake all local searches, ascertain clear title, and essentially look to satisfy all the terms and conditions of the Compromis. Once this has been done, usually after a couple of months or so, we are ready to complete.

5.The Acte de Vente

In a similar process to signing the Compromis de Vente, the Acte de Vente is signed by both parties and the deal is completed. Needless-to-say, by this time the buyer must have transferred the remaining funds to the Notaire in anticipation.

5.1 Pre-requisites

During the period between Compromis and Acte, all searches are carried out, mortages (if required) are secured, outline planning permission applied for. In essence, all of the clauses stipulated in the Compromis are to be satisfied.

5.2 Ready to Complete

As soon as this has happened, the Notaire will contact us to tell us that he is ready to complete and we will contact both parties to make the arrangements for signing the Acte de Vente. Needless-to-say, the purchase funds need to be deposited in the Notaires’ bank account in anticipation.

5.3 Buyer’s Pre-purchase visit

It is customary for the buyer to visit the property immediately prior to the signing in order to satisfy him/herself that the condition of the property is as expected, and that the items detailed in the inventory are all present and correct. It is at this point that we take all meter readings. A representative of Demeures de Campagne will be present at this meeting to ensure that the interests of both parties are fairly represented, and to advise as required.

6. Handover

All keys are handed over at the signing, and the property, together with all items left at the property (whether on the inventory list or not) legally become the property of the new owner.

Obligatory Survey

The seller of a property has an obligation to inform the purchaser on the condition of the building with regard to potential risks to the health and safety of any future occupant/s, potential risks to the safety of the building/s, as well as the environmental impact the building has on the planet. This information is included in the ‘compromis de vente’ as one of the mandatory provisions and exonerates the seller in terms of the ‘non-garantie des vices cachés’ (hidden defects) clause.

Over recent years, the state has imposed a set of obligatory searches for hidden defects in the form of the diagnostic surveys, and it is obligatory for the seller to commission a ‘DIAGNOSTIQUEUR IMMOBILIER’ who is in possession of the necessary qualifications and guarantees to carry out these diagnostic surveys – the ‘dossier de diagnostic technique’ or ‘DDT’.

The DDT consists of the following obligatory diagnostic surveys:

Lead, asbestos, termites(not obligatory in our area), electricity, gas and energy performance.
The total number of surveys required on the sale of a property will depend on where the property is, the age of the property and whether there are any existing reports from a previous sale which are still valid.

The legislation concerning the diagnostic surveys imposes an obligation on the seller solely to inform, and not an obligation to carry out corrective works.

The diagnostic surveys are paid for by the seller.